Sioux City, Iowa

Sioux City (/s/) is a city in Woodbury and Plymouth counties in the northwestern part of the U.S. state of Iowa. The population was 85,791 in the 2020 census, which makes it the fourth-largest city in Iowa.[3] The bulk of the city is in Woodbury County, of which it is the county seat, though a small portion is in Plymouth County. Sioux City is located at the navigational head of the Missouri River. The city is home to several cultural points of interest including the Sioux City Public Museum, Sioux City Art Center and Sergeant Floyd Monument, which is a National Historic Landmark. The city is also home to Chris Larsen Park, commonly referred to as "the Riverfront", which includes the Anderson Dance Pavilion, Sergeant Floyd Riverboat Museum and Lewis and Clark Interpretive Center. Sioux City is the primary city of the five-county Sioux City, IANESD Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA), with a population of 168,825 in 2010 and a slight increase to an estimated 169,405 in 2018.[4] The Sioux City–Vermillion, IA–NE–SD Combined Statistical Area had a population of 182,675 as of 2010 but had decreased to an estimated population of 178,448 as of 2018.[4]

Sioux City, Iowa
Downtown Sioux City.
"Successful, Surprising, Sioux City"[1]
Location in Iowa
Sioux City
Location in Iowa
Sioux City
Sioux City (the United States)
Coordinates: 42°29′53″N 96°23′44″W
Country United States
State Iowa
CountiesWoodbury, Plymouth
  MayorBob Scott
  City ManagerRobert Padmore
  City59.62 sq mi (154.42 km2)
  Land58.45 sq mi (151.40 km2)
  Water1.17 sq mi (3.02 km2)
1,201 ft (366 m)
  RankUS: 415th
IA: 4th
  Density1,438.9/sq mi (555.57/km2)
106,494 (US: 292nd)
169,405 (US: 251st)
178,448 (US: 143rd)
Time zoneUTC−6 (Central)
  Summer (DST)UTC−5 (Central)
ZIP Codes
51101–51106, 51108–51109, 51111
Area code(s)712
FIPS code19-73335
GNIS feature ID0461653
WebsiteCity of Sioux City
Hard Rock Hotel & Casino Downtown

Sioux City is at the navigational head, or the furthest upstream point to which general cargo ships can travel, of the Missouri River, approximately 95 miles (153 km) north of the Omaha–Council Bluffs metropolitan area. Sioux City and the surrounding areas of northwestern Iowa, northeastern Nebraska and southeastern South Dakota are sometimes referred to as Siouxland, especially by local media and residents.

It is also a part of the Sioux Falls-Sioux City Designated Market Area (DMA), a larger media market region that covers parts of four states and has a population of 1,043,450.[5]


Waterfront, circa 1912

Iowa is in the tallgrass prairie of the North American Great Plains, historically inhabited by speakers of Siouan languages. The area of Sioux City was inhabited by Yankton Sioux when it was first reached by Spanish and French furtrappers in the 18th century. The first documented US citizens to record their travels through this area were Meriwether Lewis and William Clark during the summer of 1804. Sergeant Charles Floyd, a member of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, died here on August 20, 1804, the only death during the two and a half-year expedition.[6]

1859 map of route from Sioux City, Iowa, through Nebraska, to gold fields of Wyoming, partially following old Mormon trails.

Sioux City was laid out in the winter of 1854-55.[7] It became a major transportation hub to the western Plains, including Mormons heading to Salt Lake City and speculators heading to Wyoming goldfields.

In 1891, the Sioux City Elevated Railway was opened and became the third steam-powered elevated rapid transit system in the world, and later the first electric-powered elevated railway in the world after conversion in 1892. However, the system fell into bankruptcy and closed within a decade.[8]

The city gained the nickname "Little Chicago" during the Prohibition era due to its reputation for being a purveyor of alcoholic beverages.[9]

On July 19, 1989, United Airlines Flight 232 crash-landed at Sioux Gateway Airport, killing 111 people, but 184 survived the crash and ensuing fire due to outstandingly quick performances by fire and emergency local teams that earned them several National Congress Medals, given by President George H. W. Bush in 1990.

Geography and climate


Sioux City is located at 42°29′53″N 96°23′45″W (42.497957, −96.395705).[10] Sioux City lies at an altitude of 1,135 feet (345.9 m) above sea level. Sioux City borders two states, South Dakota to the west-northwest and Nebraska to the west. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 58.49 square miles (151.49 km2), of which 57.35 square miles (148.54 km2) is land and 1.14 square miles (2.95 km2) is water.[11]


As is typical of Iowa, Sioux City has a humid continental climate, with very warm, humid summers, cold, dry winters, and wide temperature extremes; it is part of USDA Hardiness zone 5a.[12] The normal monthly mean temperature ranges from 20.4 °F (−6.4 °C) in January to 74.3 °F (23.5 °C) in July. On average, there are 25 days that reach 90 °F (32 °C) or higher, 52 days that do not climb above freezing, and 17 days with a low of 0 °F (−18 °C) or below annually. The average window for freezing temperatures is October 1 thru April 26, allowing a growing season of 157 days. Extreme temperatures officially range from −35 °F (−37 °C) on January 12, 1912 up to 111 °F (44 °C) on July 4 and 17, 1936 as well as July 11, 1939; the record cold daily maximum is −22 °F (−30 °C) on February 8, 1899, while, conversely, the record warm daily minimum is 86 °F (30 °C) on August 18, 1936.

Precipitation is greatest in May and June and averages 27.7 in (700 mm) annually, but has ranged from 14.33 in (364 mm) in 1976 to 41.10 in (1,044 mm) in 1903. Snowfall averages 34.8 in (88 cm) per season, and has historically ranged from 6.9 in (18 cm) in 1895–96 to 65.9 in (167 cm) in 1961–62; the average window for measurable (≥0.1 in or 0.25 cm) snowfall is November 8 thru April 7, although snow in October occurs several times per decade. On May 14, 2013, the high temperature reached 106 °F (41 °C), setting a new all-time May record high, along with a 77 °F (43 °C) rise from the morning of the 12th.[13]

Climate data for Sioux City, Iowa (Sioux Gateway Airport), 1991–2020 normals, extremes 1889–present
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 71
Average high °F (°C) 29.5
Daily mean °F (°C) 20.0
Average low °F (°C) 10.4
Record low °F (°C) −35
Average precipitation inches (mm) 0.69
Average snowfall inches (cm) 7.7
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 6.8 6.5 8.1 10.0 12.0 11.7 9.0 9.8 8.0 7.6 5.9 6.8 102.2
Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in) 5.9 5.7 3.4 1.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.5 2.5 5.4 24.8
Average relative humidity (%) 72.2 72.4 69.7 61.6 62.3 65.5 69.2 72.0 70.8 66.2 72.3 75.9 69.2
Mean monthly sunshine hours 171.1 165.5 211.9 232.3 271.8 310.2 330.9 292.9 235.5 209.3 146.4 138.3 2,716.1
Percent possible sunshine 58 56 57 58 60 68 71 68 63 61 50 49 61
Source: NOAA (relative humidity and sun 1961–1990)[14][15][16]


Historical population
U.S. Decennial Census[17]
2018 Estimate[18][3]

2010 census

As of the census[19] of 2010, there were 82,684 people, 31,571 households, and 20,144 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,441.7 inhabitants per square mile (556.6/km2). There were 33,425 housing units at an average density of 582.8 per square mile (225.0/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 80.6% White, 2.9% African American, 2.6% Native American, 2.7% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 7.4% from other races, and 3.7% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 16.4% of the population.

There were 31,571 households, of which 34.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.2% were married couples living together, 13.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.9% had a male householder with no wife present, and 36.2% were non-families. 29.4% of all households were made up of individuals, and 11.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.54 and the average family size was 3.14.

The median age in the city was 33.7 years. 26.6% of residents were under the age of 18; 11.4% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 25.6% were from 25 to 44; 24% were from 45 to 64, and 12.4% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 49.2% male and 50.8% female.

2000 census

As of the census of 2000, there were 85,013 people, 32,054 households, and 21,091 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,551.3 people per square mile (599.0/km2). There were 33,816 housing units at an average density of 617.1 per square mile (238.3/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 85.23% White, 2.41% African American, 1.95% Native American, 2.82% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 5.27% from other races, and 2.28% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 10.89% of the population.

There were 32,054 households, of which 33.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.1% were married couples living together, 12.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 34.2% were non-families. 27.7% of all households were made up of individuals, and 11.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.57 and the average family size was 3.14.

Age spread: 27.1% under the age of 18, 11.0% from 18 to 24, 28.5% from 25 to 44, 20.2% from 45 to 64, and 13.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.2 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $37,429, and the median income for a family was $45,751. Males had a median income of $31,385 versus $22,470 for females. The per capita income for the city was $18,666. About 7.9% of families and 11.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.0% of those under age 18 and 7.8% of those age 65 or over. This compares with a median household income for the state of Iowa of $54,736 and an Iowa median family income of $69,382.[20] (current data from State of Iowa, see also List of U.S. states by income for historical data).

Metropolitan area

As of the 2010 census, the Sioux City Metropolitan Area had 168,825 residents in five counties; the population was estimated at 169,405 in 2018.[4] As defined by the Office of Management and Budget, the counties comprising the metropolitan area are (in descending order of population):


The Floyd River in Sioux City
Confluence of the Missouri and
Floyd River in Sioux City
Top employers

Statistics from Sioux City's 2018 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report[21]

Rank Employer Number of
% of Total City
1   Tyson Fresh Meats 4,183   10.01%  
2   Sioux City Community School District 2,511   6.01%  
3   Bomgaars 2,100   5.02%  
4   Seaboard Triumph Foods 2,000   4.78%  
5   Mercy Medical Center 1,532   3.67%  
6   UnityPoint Health - St. Luke's 1,434   3.43%  
7   Hard Rock Casino Sioux City 1,389   3.32%  
8   Hy-Vee 1,164   2.78%  
9   185th Iowa Air National Guard 952   2.28%  
10   City of Sioux City 879   2.10%  
Totals   18,144   43.40%  

Arts and culture

Sergeant Floyd Monument
External video
Bandshell Added to National Register of Historic Places, (0:56), KMEG14
  • Milwaukee Railroad Shop is a 31.5 acre facility that is being renovated by the Siouxland Historical Railroad Association. It includes a 4-6-2 Pacific type steam locomotive Great Northern 1355, a model railroad exhibit, as well as multiple buildings including the roundhouse that are open to the public.
  • Grandview Park is located north of the downtown area, up from Rose Hill, between The Northside and The Heights. The Municipal Bandshell is located in the park with Sunday evening municipal band concerts. The Saturday in the Park music festival began in 1991 and is held there annually on a weekend close to the Fourth of July holiday. Behind the bandshell is a rose garden with an arbor and trellises which has been a site for outdoor weddings, prom and other special occasion photographs, and for children to play during the Sunday evening band concerts and other events. Downtown is also home to the largest historic theatre in Iowa, the Orpheum Theatre.
  • Theatre is produced in Sioux City by three main entities, the Sioux City Community Theatre (SCCT), LAMB Arts Regional Theatre, and Shot in the Dark Productions. Each of these produce a full season of shows each year.

Neighborhoods, commercial districts, and suburbs

City neighborhoods

Nearby communities

Veteran's Memorial Bridge

Parks and recreation

Stone State Park
  • Stone State Park is in the northwest corner of the city, overlooking the South Dakota/Iowa border. Stone Park is near the northernmost extent of the Loess Hills, and is at the transition from clay bluffs and prairie to sedimentary rock hills and bur oak forest along the Iowa side of the Big Sioux River. The park is used by picnickers, day hikers, and for mountain biking.
  • Dorothy Pecaut Nature Center is a destination nature preserve for Woodbury County, and is located within the boundaries of Stone State Park. The butterfly garden is unique to the area; wild turkeys and white-tail deer are commonly sighted from the well-marked trails.
  • Downtown entertainment venues include the Hard Rock Hotel & Casino, the 10,000-seat Tyson Event Center/ Gateway Arena, Sioux City Orpheum Theatre, Promenade Cinema 14 and the Anderson Dance Pavilion which overlooks the Missouri River.
  • Pulaski Park is named for the Polish General Kazimierz Pułaski, who fought in the American Revolution. This park features baseball diamond facilities, and is located in western Morningside along old U.S. Highway 75 (South Lewis Blvd.). It is largely built on the filled lakebed of Half Moon Lake, which was originally created in the 1890s by the excavation of fill dirt to build the approaches for the iron railroad bridge spanning the Missouri near the stockyards. The neighborhood on the bluff overlooking the park was historically settled by Lithuanian and Polish immigrants, many of whom worked in the meatpacking industry during the early 20th century.
  • Latham Park is located in a residential area of Morningside, and is the only privately owned and maintained open-to-the-public park within the city limits. It was left in trust in 1937 under the terms of Clara Latham's will; her family had built the house on 1-acre (4,000 m2) of ground in 1915. The house and grounds are currently being restored by the Friends of Latham Park.
  • First Bride's Grave is tucked in a corner pocket of South Ravine Park, lies a series of paths, trails, and steps leading to the grave of the First Bride of Sioux City, Rosalie Menard. She was the first bride of a non-Native American to be wed in Sioux City, Iowa, thus receiving her title.
  • War Eagle Park is named for the Yankton Sioux chief Wambdi Okicize (d. 1851) who befriended early settlers. A monument overlooks the confluence of the Big Sioux and Missouri Rivers. The sculpture represents the chief in his role as a leader and peacemaker, wearing the eagle feather bonnet and holding the ceremonial pipe.
  • Riverside Park is located on the banks of the Big Sioux River. One of the oldest recreational areas of the city, it is home to the Sioux City Boat Club and Sioux City Community Theater. The park is on land that once belonged to the first white settler in the area, Théophile Bruguier; his original cabin is preserved in the park.[24]
  • Bacon Creek Park is located northeast of Morningside and features a scenic walking trail, dog park, picnic shelters, and playground equipment.

Golf courses, city parks, and aquatics: Sioux City is also home to several municipal public golf courses, including Floyd Park in Morningside, Green Valley near the Southern Hills, Sun Valley on the northern West Side, and Hidden Acres in nearby Plymouth County. Sioux City also has a number of private golf clubs, including Sioux City Country Club, and Whispering Creek Golf Club. The city has over 1,132 acres (5 km2) of public parkland located at 53 locations, including the riverfront and many miles of recreation trails. Five public swimming pools/aquatics centers are located within Sioux City neighborhoods.


Public schools

The Sioux City Community School District serves 13,480 students[25] living in Sioux City; there are three public high schools West High School, North High School, East High School (grades 9-12), three public Middle Schools, West Middle, North Middle, and East Middle (grades 6-8), and 19 Elementary Schools (grades K-5).[26]

Because of sprawl, districts around Sioux City continue to grow at dramatic rates. South Sioux City, Hinton, North Sioux City, Lawton, Bronson, Elk Point, Jefferson, Vermillion, Le Mars, Hawarden, Akron, Westfield, Ponca, Sergeant Bluff, Wayne, Sioux Center, along with other school districts that serve many metro-area students.

Private schools

Bishop Heelan Catholic Schools is a centralized private Catholic School System that includes six schools: They teach preschool through twelfth grade.

Siouxland Community Christian School educates grades K-12.

Advanced education

Sioux City is home to Briar Cliff University, Morningside College, Western Iowa Tech Community College, St. Lukes College of Nursing, and the Bellevue University outreach center.

City ratings

Money recognized Sioux City in its August 2010 issue of the "Best Places To Live".[27] Sioux City was no longer on the list of the top 50 as of 2016.[28]

Sioux City has a crime rate that is 100% higher than the average for Iowa and 63% higher than the national average. The violent crime rate is 47% above the Iowa average and 13% higher than the national average, based on the FBI's uniform crime reports for the year of 2015.[29] According to the report this represented an 11% increase over the prior year.

In March 2013, Site Selection recognized Sioux City as the 4th Top Metro area in the Midwest Region. This ranking is based on the number of commercial facilities projects being developed. Sioux City ranked 1st in regards to Metro Populations between 50,000 and 200,000.[30]

Forbes placed the Sioux City metro in the Top 15 Best Small Places for Businesses and Careers in 2011. By 2015 it had fallen to number 54 on the list.[31] ranked the area the #2 Most Livable Bargain Market.[32] The Daily Beast, an American news reporting website, placed Sioux City on their list of The Top 40 Drunkest Cities in America, with a ranking of 14th.[33] According to a 2015 University of Iowa study for the Iowa Initiative for Sustainable Communities,[34] blight and disinvestment are serious problems in the downtown core as investment has shifted to suburbs.[35]


Television stations

Radio stations

FM stations
AM stations


  • Sioux City Journal, daily newspaper serving greater Sioux City area, including Iowa, Nebraska and South Dakota.
  • Dakota County Star, weekly newspaper serving northeast Nebraska.
  • Sioux City Hispanos Unidos, bi-weekly Spanish readers paper.
  • The Weekender, weekly arts and entertainment magazine serving the Sioux City metro area east into Western Iowa and north to the South Dakota border.
  • Siouxland Magazine, quarterly magazine with community/lifestyle features.


Tyson Events Center, with Gateway Arena to the left and Longlines Family Recreation Center to the right



Interstate 29 is a major controlled-access highway in Sioux City and the surrounding area providing easy access of the 20- mile stretch covering Sioux City and the majority of its suburbs. It approaches the city from Omaha to the south before curving northwest along the Missouri River near downtown. The highway then enters South Dakota and curves back to the north as it approaches Sioux Falls. Interstate 129 is an auxiliary Interstate that connects South Sioux City, Nebraska to the south side of Sioux City and works as a bypass for travelers to other surrounding suburbs. Interstate 129 also interconnects with U.S. Route 75, which is in expansion to expressway form connecting Sioux City to Worthington, Minnesota. U.S. Route 20, the longest road in the United States, spanning 3,365 mi (5,415 km) is also in the process of expanding from a two-lane highway to four-lanes from Sioux City to Dubuque, which will provide faster and easier access comparable to Interstate 80. Sioux City operates automatic speed cameras on interstate highways. The cameras are operated by Redflex Holdings and are reported to provide approximately $4.5 million per year for the city budget.[36] The state of South Dakota has been refusing to provide addresses associated with licence plates due to the large number of South Dakota residents fined by Sioux City.[37][38][39][40]

Public transportation

Sioux City Transit, the local public transit organization, operates several bus lines within the city. Buses transfer downtown in the Martin Luther King Jr. Transportation Center at 505 Nebraska Street.[41] The Sioux City Paratransit serves members of the community who would otherwise not be able to travel by providing door to door service.[42]


The city is served by Sioux Gateway Airport (SUX) 6 mi (9.7 km) to its south where American Airlines' affiliate American Eagle began service to Chicago in 2012.[43] Charter flights are also available here. Currently, there are flights to Dallas (DFW) and Chicago (ORD).

In 2019 the Federal Aviation Administration proposed a $145,452 civil penalty against SUX Airport for numerous alleged safety violations including alleging that the airport repeatedly failed to maintain surfaces, runway and taxiway markings, and visual wind direction indicators. The FAA inspected the airport in May 2018, June 2019 and September 2019 and each time found numerous alleged violations. [44][45]


Jefferson Lines runs long-distance bus routes to Sioux City. Non-Transfer destinations include Winnipeg, Kansas City, Minneapolis, and Omaha.

Sioux City also has several private taxi companies that operate within the city.

There is no established water or rail passenger transportation in the area. The last passenger train was the Illinois Central's Hawkeye, a daily train to Chicago via Waterloo, Dubuque and Rockford, discontinued in 1971.[46]

Big Soo Terminal offers barge transportation.[47]

Notable people

Sioux City native Pauline (Friedman) Phillips, who used the pen name of Abigail Van Buren for her advice column "Dear Abby", was the twin sister of Esther (Friedman) Lederer, the author of the competing Ann Landers column.

Sister cities

See also


  1. City of Sioux City. "City of Sioux City".
  2. "2019 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 17, 2020.
  3. "2020 Census State Redistricting Data". United states Census Bureau. Retrieved August 12, 2021.
  4. U.S. Census Bureau (June 6, 2019). "Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas Population Totals: 2010-2018".
  5. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on October 12, 2013. Retrieved October 12, 2013.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  6. "The Lewis & Clark Expedition - A History Brief". Sioux City Public Library. Archived from the original on May 26, 2011. Retrieved July 28, 2010.
  7. History of Western Iowa, Its Settlement and Growth. Western Publishing Company. 1882. pp. 178.
  8. "Elevated Railway". Retrieved January 31, 2011.
  9. Rebecca Sunshine Our Hometown: "Downtown Sioux City", KTIV NewsChannel, 4 July 20, 2008
  10. "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. February 12, 2011. Retrieved April 23, 2011.
  11. "US Gazetteer files 2010". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on January 24, 2012. Retrieved May 11, 2012.
  12. "USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map". United States Department of Agriculture. Archived from the original on February 27, 2014. Retrieved June 1, 2014.
  13. Masters, Jeff. "Extreme Weather Whiplash: 106° in Iowa on the Heels of Record May Snows". Wunderground. Retrieved June 1, 2014.
  14. "NowData – NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved June 27, 2021.
  15. "Station: Sioux City Gateway AP, IA". U.S. Climate Normals 2020: U.S. Monthly Climate Normals (1991-2020). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved June 27, 2021.
  16. "WMO Climate Normals for SIOUX CITY/MUNICIPAL, IA 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved June 27, 2021.
  17. "Census of Population and Housing". Retrieved June 4, 2015.
  18. "Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved June 6, 2019.
  19. "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved May 11, 2012.
  20. "Iowa Quick Facts — State Data Center".
  21. "Sioux City CAFR". City of Sioux City, Iowa. p. 154. Retrieved March 10, 2019.
  22. "WPA opens forty-eighth federal art center at Sioux City". Museum News: 1, 4. April 1, 1938. Sioux City Art Center opens on February 20, 1938. Also notes that Butte, Montana, has plans for an art center; other proposed sites include Spokane, WA; Salem, OR; Sacramento, CA; Long Beach, CA; Poughkeepsie, NY; and Key West, FL.
  23. "Dakota Dunes: Demographics". Archived from the original on June 8, 2008.
  24. Schalge, Gretchen E. (2010). "Theophile Bruguier Cabin" (PDF). National Park Service. Retrieved December 13, 2016.
  25. Enrollments and Projections. Retrieved on 2013-08-25.
  26. "Home". Sioux City Community Schools.
  27. "CNN Money Best Places To Live". Archived from the original on July 17, 2010. Retrieved January 6, 2011.
  28. "Best Places to Live 2016". Money.
  29. "Sioux City, IA Crime Rates & Crime Map".
  30. "Houston, We Have a Winner". Site Selection Online. March 2013. Archived from the original on March 29, 2013. Retrieved March 28, 2013.
  31. "Best Small Places for Businesses and Careers". June 2011. Retrieved October 4, 2011.
  32. Fulmer, Melinda (2011). "2011 MSN Real Estate Most Livable Bargain Markets - 2. Sioux City, Iowa-Neb.-S.D." Archived from the original on September 5, 2011. Retrieved October 4, 2011.
  33. "USA's Drunkest Cities Are Milwaukee, Fargo And San Francisco". Medical News Today. January 2011. Retrieved January 6, 2011.
  34. "Iowa Initiative for Sustainable Communities | Urban and Regional Planning | The University of Iowa".
  35. Brennan, Paul. Townhall Missing or empty |title= (help)
  36. Hult, John. "Daugaard: SD won't tell Sioux City where you live". USA TODAY.
  37. "South Dakota To Drivers: Ignore Those Pesky Iowa Speeding Cameras".
  38. "EDITORIAL: S. Dakota won't let Iowa speed cameras pick Dakotans' pockets".
  39. Transit Archived 2013-02-08 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on 2013-08-25.
  40. Archived August 21, 2015, at the Wayback Machine
  41. "FAA proposes $145,452 civil penalty against Sioux Gateway Airport". December 17, 2019.
  42. "Press Release – FAA Proposes $145,452 Civil Penalty Against Sioux Gateway Airport".
  43. "Routes and Trains on the Eve of Amtrak" Archived 2013-01-31 at
  44. Dreeszen, Dave (May 26, 2005). "Local ports face second straight season without barge traffic". Sioux City Journal. Retrieved June 17, 2013.
  45. Brad Booker, Alex Franco, Sara Osburn (April 22, 2015). "Jay Whitecotton, Ryan Cownie & Bob Khosravi". Booker, Alex & Sara (Podcast). KAMX. Retrieved October 19, 2020.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  46. "National Football League". Dave Croston. Retrieved December 11, 2010.
  47. Lowe, Zach (September 9, 2019). "The unusual path of new Raptors assistant coach Brittni Donaldson". Retrieved March 6, 2020.
  48. "". Sharon Farrell. Retrieved December 11, 2010.
  49. Three-strikes law
  50. Broad, William J. (November 12, 2007). "A Spy's Path: Iowa to A-Bomb to Kremlin Honor" via
  51. "Marshall Frank Moore". Washington Secretary of State. Retrieved October 9, 2012.
  52. "Krewe de Charlie Sioux". Retrieved July 28, 2010.
  53. "Dancing and formality mark signing of sister city agreement". Sioux City Journal. November 6, 2003. Retrieved July 28, 2010.
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